Post-Quantum Cryptography (PQC) Migration: Securing Your Data Against Quantum Threats

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Post Quantum Computing Migration

The rise of quantum computing ushered in the innovation of the past year in information security services. Although quantum computing has the unprecedented capacity to revolutionize numerous industries by implementing this extraordinary technology, it simultaneously creates a potentially critical problem for the encryption methods we take for granted.

Classical encryption algorithms, for example, RSA and Elliptic Curve Cryptography (ECC), designed on the theory of large number factoring and finding the discrete logarithm problem, as well as simplification, could very well be broken by quantum computers of sufficient power.

With quantum computing’s physiologically extending capabilities, it is imperative for organizations to navigate it as a digital transformation to post-quantum cryptography (PQC). PQC embraces a collection of cryptographic algorithms purposefully crafted to stay secure against both classical and quantum computers.

Missing the critical transition to PQC could provoke some troubling repercussions, like data being compromised, intellectual property being detected, and confidential transmissions being accessed.

In this article, we examine PQC as essential, discuss its implementation at the cost of existing TLS algorithms, and provide a thorough migration guide to enable organizations to plan and conduct a PQC migration strategy successfully.

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Understanding Post-Quantum Cryptography (PQC)

Post-quantum cryptography (PQC) is the name of a cryptographic algorithm that is considered to work against an attack from classical devices and quantum computers. The specific algorithms arise from the computation problems that may be considered to be hard even by the use of the QC computation output.

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Complementarily, PQC algorithms offer the same level of security and performance as traditional types of encryption with an added layer of safeguard against the possibility of an attack that quantum computations present.

Why think ahead and program PQC now?

Unlike the massive classical computers, the invention of large-scale quantum machines that are known to crack the present spying techniques has no well-defined time frame as to when it is expected to be developed, and therefore the threat is imminent.

Here are a few key reasons why organizations should start planning for PQC migration now:

Long Lifespan of Sensitive Data:

Another feature that has proven to be more secure now is encryption, more so because much of the data can be hacked, which was founded many years or even decades ago when quantum computing might be a reality.

Lengthy Migration Process:

The transition to PQC is a long and intricate process because of the several factors to cover which include identification of the risks, rectifying the systems and applications, integrating new cryptographic protocols, and updating the compatibility in the different platforms.


Starting the planning and implementation at this time, the organizations will pre-prepare their systems and structures for change to quantum-ready cryptology for ease of transitioning at some point.

Staying Ahead of Threats:

This way, by adopting PQC through projection and preparation, organizations would stay ahead of the entire quantum computing threats and ensure that no foothold is provided that is weaker compared to others.

NIST-Approved PQC Algorithms

NIST has spearheaded this initiative since long ago by organizing competitions open to the public and profoundly evaluating cryptographic algorithms (PQC).

In July 2022, NIST announced the first four PQC algorithms as acceptable for general use:

  • CRYSTALS-Kyber: The most critical aspect of developing the system is a securely encrypted key encapsulated into an abstract algebra which is a lattice.
  • CRYSTALS-Dilithium: Therefore, an algorithm for the digital signature is presented based on such a multifactorial grid as has been mentioned above.
  • FALCON: An algorithm of digital signature employing the problem of finding short vectors of ideal lattices.
  • SPHINCS+: To provide a method of digital signatures with a hash function.

As the first step, these algorithms are expected to set up a cryptographic standard to verify the integrity, authenticity, and confidentiality of the information exchanged during the quantum era.

Challenges of PQC Migration

While the transition to PQC is crucial for maintaining data security, the migration process itself presents several challenges that organizations must address:

Compatibility and Interoperability:

In fact, there is no guarantee that PQC algorithms could easily be integrated with some of the pre-existing cryptographic algorithms, protocols, and applications, and hence, the need to expect that it will redesign or replace the system altogether.

Performance Overhead:

While some codes used in PQC might slow down the response rates and overall performance, others would still be capable of evolving and maintaining the security of the systems.

Key Management:

It is, therefore, necessary to come up with appropriate encounter effective essential management techniques for dealing with conversion from traditional familiar scalar keys to modern complex quantum keys.

Skill and Resource Requirements:

Implementing PQC solutions would impose new costs on businesses such as training the personnel and achieving the necessary technical infrastructure and tools for consistent application of PQC solutions.

Standardization and Adoption:

This is particularly important as both a single and combined application towards the installation of the QPR standards needed for systems integration and the establishment of a scalable and robust field of applications.

Implementation of the Post-Quantum Cryptography

Implementing PQC involves a series of steps and considerations:

Risk Assessment:

Conduct a structured threat analysis to identify critical processes, data, and connecting links that can be vulnerable to attacks using quantum systems and therefore appropriate to be protected through encryption. Regardless of the period that is taken to archive sensitive data and the likelihood of other risks in the future, one should consider both.

Inventory and Prioritization:

Enumerate all those procedures, processes, and protocols requiring cryptography for function and rank them in terms of their significance and the potential impact they create in case of failure.

PQC Algorithm Selection:

Finally, select the proper PQC algorithms for your organization in terms of performance for your organization here, how large the key sizes are, and here whether your organization will be using PQC for encryption and getting digital signatures rather than others.

Implementation and Integration:

Finally, select the proper PQC algorithms for your organization in terms of performance for your organization here, how large the key sizes are, and here whether your organization will be using PQC for encryption and getting digital signatures rather than others.

Key Management:

Develop and integrate a key management application to work with the current and quantum-resistant cryptographic key crucial sectors, in the event of a shift.

Testing and Validation:

Make extensive tests on the feasibility of realizing the PQCs through proper methods that aim at producing effective interaction, and high performance without compromising on the security of the services.

Compliance and Standards:

It cannot be overlooked that if you want to make your service stand out then you need to conform to the industry benchmark of practice on the implementation of PQC.

Training and Education:

However, to avoid compromising the acceptance of PQC, ensure that the staff directly engaging in the management and day-to-day running of PQC systems are knowledgeable, well-trained, and educated.

Continuous Monitoring and Adaptation:

When developing and updating the PQC plan, observe changes in quantum computing terms and rigorously follow resource availability, consensus, and trending policies.

Planning for PQC Migration

To successfully navigate the challenges of PQC migration, organizations should develop a comprehensive plan that addresses the following key aspects.

  • Risk Assessment: A quantitative risk assessment should be conducted to identify the areas that need protection against quantum computer attacks by classifying the parts with the highest risk.
  • Inventory and Prioritization: Provide a list of all the systems and processes that can be characterized as employing cryptographic-based encryption and rank them based on the identified aspects like the importance of the system and the potential impact from an information security perspective in case of compromise.
  • Resource Planning: Enumerate the kind of resources involved in a migration in terms of people, training needed, hardware, and software.
  • Phased Approach: Propose to launch an efficient migration plan first to those important systems and conduct its integration throughout PQC systematically.
  • Testing and Validation: Intensely validate and evaluate the current state of PQC deployments to see whether the system is optimally aligned and meets the performance and security requirements.
  • Collaboration and Partnerships: Consult with your partners, vendors, and other experts and use the most current information on organizing top-level sites and existing guidelines.
  • Continuous Monitoring and Adaptation: Watch and focus on the changes in the quantum computing portfolio and align this PQC activity in response to threats and discoveries that are still active.


The abundance of the quantum age is near, and the new real threat to traditional cryptography has appeared only now – quantum computing, a ‘medium’ that cannot be left unaddressed.

The opportunity to run both classic and quantum-safety resistant keys during an organization’s migration period for its critical management accompanied by the capability to quickly enhance quantum-safe cryptographic agility will indeed make businesses quantum-safe future-proof to guard against threats posed by quantum computing.

The lack of a contingency plan for this phase means that this will act as an avenue that has a high risk and negative impact on the protection of data where intellectual property is stolen and the line of communications compromised.

Reflecting on that as a premise, it is possible to state that the quantum age here can be viewed as revolutionary in terms of cybersecurity issues and prospects.

The best approach to handle the rising issues that occur during PQC fast migration is by following the below listed techniques: These are risk analysis, identification, and prioritization of projects, estimation of available resources, a phased-up plan, testing and proofing, combining efforts, and monitoring the project constantly and updating it if needed.

Frequently Added Questions (FAQs)

  1. When do the companies need to begin deploying PQC preparation?

Power Quality Correction implementation should be started as soon as possible, and migration should not be delayed. However, if the same app is downloaded on different gadgets such as tablets or other types of smartphones, the clients may lose all their data to archive and restore them as different types of storage for one app may be installed on different types of gadgets. Therefore, any type of preparation right from the start will ensure that the period alluded to leading to noncompliance is refrained from in its entirety.

  • Is PQC a complete replacement for the present encryption methods?

Not necessarily. Several situations shall employ Dilithium, alongside hybrid and standard PQCs. This type of a mixture of strategies could still offer protection from classical, and quantum attacks during the transitional stage when the old security system is being replaced with the new security system.

  • Is PQC a complete replacement for the present encryption methods?

Forecasting the outcome of this migration is tricky since the impact that will be experienced will depend on the intensity of systems or applications that will be implemented. There are some inherent to PQC, and the only modification required would be a reloading of a particular algorithm if the support for the cryptographic system is built-in to that; While others may require gross modification or perhaps replacement with completely new ones for the PQC algorithms.

  • Is PQC a complete replacement for the present encryption methods?

The performance issue of some PQC algorithms is in some cases that they could be slower than the traditional encryption mechanisms. The use of LRU may affect on system response time, system throughput, or system efficiency. Still, the performance implications can be attributed mainly to currently unoptimized code and lack of hardware support, which should be improved in the future.

  • Is PQC a complete replacement for the present encryption methods?

Such factors call for the implementation of real and viable strategies concerning the exchange of classical cryptographic keys for quantum-resistant ones. It may require changing key management, distribution, storage, and revocation as well as burning in strong access control and strong auditing techniques.

Janki Mehta

Janki Mehta

Janki Mehta is a Cyber-Security Enthusiast who constantly updates herself with new advancements in the Web/Cyber Security niche. Along with theoretical knowledge, she also implements her practical expertise in day-to-day tasks and helps others to protect themselves from threats.